Mike Levin SEO

Future-proof your technology-skills with Linux, Python, vim & git... and me!

← Use Python to Cycle Your IP with HMA VPN Software and Windows Automation
Why Linux Fights Obsolescence and LXD is Key →

Run LXD Linux Containers on Windows WSL 2 Ubuntu 20.04 and 22.04

by Mike Levin

Friday, August 12, 2022

There’s no place like home. Yet, we lose our “home” a lot in life. Settling quickly and happily back into a new home is one of the great skills in life, be it in the physical world or the digital one.

Re-establishing all the familiarities and getting things running smoothly again is challenging in either case, but it is a skill one can benefit from improving. To that end, I’ve prepared this little guide.

GUI’s Are Syntactic Sugar (Not The Real OS)

What’s home your digital home? Windows? MacOS? Point-and-clicking? drag-and-dropping? Locations of things changing on you with every version upgrade? Not me. I’m using stuff that hasn’t changed much since the 1970s and 1990s and is still going strong. The locations of your keys on the keyboard don’t change (much) and software interfaces are superbly static so we can be the dynamic ones. Fixed locations are better than floating ones when it comes to improving over time, and that’s what the type-in user interface provides.

Better still, the type-in OSes are generally free and open source, certainly contributing something towards their eternal timelessness. While proprietary Windows and MacOS go hopelessly obsolete, the Linux Terminal only gets better with age.

Windows and Mac desktops are not really even OSes. They are syntactic sugar sprinkled on top of what really matters, the text-based OS underneath. Apple proved this in 2007 when they switched their proprietary OS9 to UNIX-base OSX and hardly anyone noticed. But today most Mac users interact only with the Cocoa puff and not Darwinian evolution below.

Apple prisoners stay prisoners because they can live only in the graphical user interface where they’re shaken down for money every few years. Steve Jobs used to pry the arrow-keys off of keyboards he hated the command-line interface so much. Separation from the “real OS” is very intentional, and you can fix that.

Particular Instances of Hardware Is The Enemy

Even those who have made the break from GUIs still have problems because of particular instances of hardware, virtual machines or even containers. The crash of a piece of hardware in your life can be devastating, a lifetime of work or memories lost. And the “cloud” isn’t the entire answer, either. Just having a little more control is.

My feeling is that you’re not free from the tyranny of vendors until you can quickly rebuild your home from parts, and the home you build is mostly a text-based OS in which I guarantee you can learn to be comfortable. Like anything else, it takes practice.

Developers Know This. Microsoft Knows This. The Time is Ripe.

Developers know this and demand their Linux tools like gcc, git, apt, pip, npm and all the other things that frustrate Mac and Linux users. They’re all going to Linux anyway and Microsoft knows this so has been working on their Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL) for quite some time.

Windows Subsystem for Linux is finally ready for prime time, and so ironically Microsoft themselves is giving us all our best hope of finding our freedom and independence from Microsoft, if only we can figure out how to use the tools properly and form the right habits. Build your house from bricks and don’t let the Big Bad Wolf blow it over again, obsoleting your old GUI-based software.

Vendors, Vendors Everywhere; Can’t Escape Them For Now

To achieve this lofty goal, there are unfortunately vendor components we’re just not going to be able to get away from today. We will ditch Windows and Github in the future and I’ll take you there. But for right now, today there are a few vendor-provided pieces we’re going to need, such as Github or Bitbucket for private git repos in a remote repository.

Unless you’re ready to make the switch cold-turkey to Linux, we’ll also be using Windows for a little while longer. It gives us our warm-and-fuzzies, games, drivers, readily available working systems, compatibility with the office or whatever. There’s a thousand tiny reasons starting out on Windows reduces the pain. And it doesn’t have to be multi-boot anymore. You get Windows and Linux at the same time–the best of both worlds.

Sprinkling On The Magic Fairy Dust

Fast-forward in your mind to where you’re familiar and comfortable with the Linux Terminal text-based interface to computers. Even there you won’t be able to sit down at just any Linux Terminal and be 100% comfortable. There will be a few bits of customizations to sprinkle in; a mapped drive here, a text-editor configuration file there. These are mine. It is the magic fairy dust I sprinkle into a plain vanilla Linux system to make them home.

The list of essentials may be different for you and it evolves over time. None-the-less, these are the parts that get recombined into whatever. It can be onto the bare metal hardware, a virtual machine or a container. Once you have the skills to recombine them, it doesn’t matter. Just keep your ingredients safe (and up-to-date) somewhere. Git repos are generally good for everything except for the .ssh keys and other login credentials.

To Map Locations Or To Copy Files, That Is The Question

Three of these are file locations while the rest are just individual little files that just get dropped in the ~/ (home) folder of any Linux system. The dot in front of the filenames means the OS hides them (invisible files) by default. Config files are usually like that.

The 3 file locations are handled each in different ways. If there’s a “host” machine of any sort involved, I like to reuse the host’s .ssh and github folders so I don’t have to make multiple copies of keys all around and so that I don’t have to keep git cloning out of Github, but either one can be produced from scratch rather easily.

A Tale Of Two Hosts: Windows & Linux

I’m using Windows machines as the host these days. This is because Windows hardware is cheap and abundant, pre-installed, has lots of drivers and other support, keeps me compatible with the office, and a thousand other little reasons that just make this today’s reality. It’ll change in the future, but for now I use the Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL 2) to host Linux containers. These Linux containers get the magic fairy dust sprinkled onto them to make them home.

The next concept is a bit of a leap, but hang with me. Windows should not directly be your host, because it’s not timeless and eternal enough. Linux should be your host, so our first priority is to get a sort of Linux host running side-by-side with Windows under Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL 2). We will then use this WSL2 Linux instance to host subsequent Linux containers onto which we will sprinkle the magic fairy-dust making them home.

I’ve documented plenty how to get WSL2 running in the first place. I may add those instructions or hyperlink them here later, but for now once you have a WSL2 Linux instance running, you can map locations from Windows host over to Linux host like this from within the WSL2 Linux Terminal, changing usernames to your case:

ln -s /mnt/c/Users/winuser/github/ /home/wsluser/github
ln -s /mnt/c/Users/winuser/.ssh/ /home/wsluser/.ssh

These are the easy ones because those locations really reside on the real hardware of the host machine. The ln command makes UNIX-style symbolic links. They’re one of the million-dollar tricks of Unix/Linux and you should google them to really grok it. It’s a gift that this works in this context. Network drives aren’t so easy.

Persistent Mounting of Microsoft Network SAMBA/CIFS Shared Drives

Network drives reside somewhere else on your network than your actual laptop. Why would you do this? Your laptop should not be your single point-of-failure. You should start getting yourself used to working on different physical hardware since your home’s about to float now anyway. Don’t go through all this trouble and then make any single laptop all that precious. Use a NAS and back up its storage to 2 additional locations. And it’s easier to get a shared network drive in your home than you think with such products as QNAP or Synology NAS (network attached storage).

I like to use a location called ~/data. If I haven’t explained it yet, ~/ always means “home”. When you see ~/, think /home/username/. The tilde is just a shortcut. And to map a network drive to such a location, here’s what we do.

cd ~/
mkdir data
sudo mount -t drvfs '\\EchidNAS\data' /home/wsluser/data

There’s some special Microsoft magic going on here with that drvfs fileformat it’s defining. From the page https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/wsl/wsl-config it says:

DrvFs is a filesystem plugin to WSL that was designed to support interop between WSL and the Windows filesystem. DrvFs enables WSL to mount drives with supported file systems under /mnt, such as /mnt/c, /mnt/d, etc.

Suffice to say it works and is the key to moving files around easily between the 2 hosts, and in the future between containers and other physical computers on your network. Of course adjust your paths and usernames to match:

Unfortunately, that network mount will be lost between every reboot without editing the /etc/fstab file to make it persistent. So this line must be edited into /etc/fstab. It needs admin privileges to edit, so I sudo vim /etc/fstab.

\\EchidNAS\data /home/ubuntu/data drvfs defaults 0 0

At this point, you can exit your WSL login, restart WSL and go back in to make sure you still have your ~/data drive:

wsl --shutdown
wsl -d Ubuntu-20.04

Sprinkle Magic Fairy Dust From ~/data/home To ~/

Now that you’ve mounted your network drive where you keep all those precious components you can build your house from and made sure the link will survive a reboot, you can with confidence copy stuff from it home:

cd ~/
cp ~/data/home/.* .

You can exit and log back into this new Linux host to make sure your environment is fully activated. In particular that will run your .bash_profile. If you have stuff in your .bash_profile file that doesn’t exist (yet), you’ll get errors. I typically activate a Python venv (virtual environment) from in there, so I have to comment that line out.

Now I’ve Got A Linux Host… Ho Ho Ho

This is a nice, solid Linux host machine for your Linux containers. This is not your new actual home. This is a Linux host under which your LXD Linux containers will be created and treated as home. There’s a subtle point to get here. It’s all about the application program interfaces (APIs). APIs are the real tools here. You learn an API and internalize it as a part of yourself like learning a new language. You don’t want it going obsolete on you all the time and be left speaking a dead language… like Windows. You want to be speaking Linux to create and manage other Linux.

Many will suggest at this point (and Microsoft certainly would) that you should just use this WSL Linux instance directly as your new Linux home. The problem being that you’ll continue nurturing your Windows dependences. There’s tons of subtleties and nuance using a Windows machine as a Linux host directly. You’ll be building your house from straw because down this path, you’ll be becoming expert at the Microsoft WSL API and not the LXD API. What you really want to do is learn the LXD (Linux container host) API, which I expect will eventually stabilize be mainstreamed into Linux the way the Linux Kernel Virtual Machine (KVM) did. LXD is from Canonical, the people who make Ubuntu. It still has to officially win the battle for the kernel and ubiquity in other distros, but it’s well on its way.

But What About Docker Vs. LXD?

Most people will be advocating Docker over LXD at this point because of its enormous uptake over the past decade. And yes, Docker is awesome and won’t be going away. But Docker is for Apps. LXD is for complete Linux systems. Or in other words, Docker is for the “possessions” inside your home but not for the entire home itself. LXD is for your entire home.

Docker can fake it, but you feel the faking. Once a particular home is “perfected”, a docker image can be turned into a wonderful distributable plug-in image so anyone can plug it in and enjoy that home. So docker is great for app store ecosystems. But if you want to start customizing that home and making it yours (like a developer), it’s done with a series of layered-on or composited overlays. Docker makes a sort of nonvolatile or immutable core image

Once you’re in an LXD container in comparison, it’s exactly like being in a regular Linux system. Just Google LXD vs Docker and you’ll get the gist.

Installing LXD Containers on a Linux Running Under Windows WSL 2

This is where it gets tricky. I’ve got quite a bit to expand here in this article related to mapping in drives from the Linux host to the containers.